Himachal Dharamsala Kangra Kullu Chamba Mandi Palampur Shimla
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 The People & Tribes >         Gaddis        Gujjars           Malana   

GENESIS OF HIMACHAL  PRADESH                     


Himachal Pradesh came into being as a part C State of Indian Union on 15th April, 1948 by integrating 30 big and small hill states.

        These State were: Baghat, Bhajji, Baghal, Bija, Balsen, Bushehar, Chamba, Darboti, Deloth-Dhadi, Dhami, Ghund, Jubbal, Khaneti Kyarhoti, Kumarsain, Kunnihar, Kuthar, Mandi, Madhan, Mahlog, Mangal, Kot (Ratesh), Keonthal, Rawinigarh, Sangri, Sirmour Suhet, Tharoch, Theog etc.                                                               Image by Birbal Sharma

     All these areas at theat time constituted four districts namely: Chamba, Mahasu, Mandi and Sirmour with a area of 27,169 square kilometers

     In 1954, the neighboring State of Bilaspur was integrated with Himachal Pradesh there by adding one more district having 1167 S.K

      HP remained part C State of the Indian Union till 1956.

      In 1956 States reorganization Commission recommended to abolish the categorization of States as Part A, B, C etc.

     H.P. status as Union Territory continued till the conferment of Statehood on 25th January, 1971.

In 1960, the Border chini tehsil of Mahasu district was carved out as a separate administrative unit and district Kinnaur was formed raising the total number of districts to rise.

                                 Images by Birbal Sharma

        On 1st November, 1966 the then Pubjab State was reorganized with the formation of Haryana as a separate State and Kullu, Kangra, Shimla and some hilly areas of Hoshiarpur district and Dalhousie of Gurdaspur district merged into HP and four new districts formed viz. Kullu, Lahaul-Spiti, Kangra and Shimla.

        With this addition at that time, HP constituted of ten districts, an area of 55,673 kilometres and population 28.12 lakh (1961 census).

        On 1st September, 1972 two more districts viz Hamirpur and Una were created by trifurcation of Kangra districts.

        Mahasu and Shimla districts were recoganised as Shimla an Solan districts on 1st September, 1972.

        Since, 1st September, 1972 onwards, there had been no change in the administrative structure of HP. Presently, there are 12 districts, 52 Sub-divisions, 75 tehsils and 34 Sub-tehsils in Himachal Pradesh.


   Himachal Pradesh is almost wholly mountainous with altitudes ranging from 350 meters to 6,975 meters above the mean sea level. It is located between Latitude 30O 22 40 N to 33O 12 20 N and Longitude 75O 45 55 E to 79O 04 20 E. It has a deeply dissected topography, complex geological structure and a rich temperate flora in the sub-tropical latitudes. Physiographic ally, the State can be divided into five zones viz. (i) Wet Sub-temperate zone, (ii)  Humid Sub-temperate zone, (iii) Dry temperate-alpine High lands, (iv) Humid Sb-tropical zone, and (v) Sub-Humid Sub-tropical zone. Wet Sub-temperate sone comprises Palampur and Dharamsala of Kangra District, Jogindernagar area of Mandi district and Dalhousie area of Chamba district, Humid Sub-temperate zone comprises the districts of Kullu, Shimla, parts of Mandi, Solan, chamba, Kangra and Sirmour, Dry temperate-Alpine High lands include major parts of Lahaul-Spiti, Pangi and Minnaur, Humid Sub-tropical zone consists district Sirmaur, Bhattiyat valley of district chamba, Nalagarh area of district Solan, Dehragopipur and Nurpur areas of district Kangra and; Sub-humid tropical zone sirmaur and Indora area of district Kangra.

    Climatically Himachal Pradesh can be divided into three zones (I) The outer Himalayas, (ii) The Inner Himalayas and (iii) Alpine zone. The first zone gets annual rainfall between 150 cms and 175 cms. In second it varies between 75 cms to 100 cms and the Alpine zone remains under snow for about five to six months. The average annual rainfall in the State is about 160 cms. The climate varies between hot and a humid in the valley areas to freezing cold in the home of perpetual snow.

    The soils of Himachal Pradesh can be divided into nine groups on the basis of their development and physio-chemical properties. These groups are alluvial soils, Brown hill soils, Brown earths, Brown porests soils, Grey wooded or Podozolic soils, Grey brown podzolic soils, Plansolic soils, Humus and iron Podzols and Alpine hunus mountain skeletal soils.

    Five perennial rivers Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Yamuna flow through its territory. The utility of these rivers though restricted considerably by the rugged and undulating terrain of the State, nevertheless, these rivers posses immense potential for the generation of hydro-electricity.


 Area -
55673 Sq. km
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 Motorable Roads -
23,788 Kms.
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 Road density -
42.10 Kms
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 Identified Hydroelectric Potential -
20,376 MW in five rivers basins i.e. (Yamuna, Satluj, Beas, Ravi & Chenab)
 Potential harnessed
 Irrigation facility available (CCA Created) -
1.95 lakh hectare
 Food grain production -
17.83 lakh tonnes
 Vegetable production -
7.00lakh tonnes
 Area under Vegetable production -
38,000 hectare
 Fruit Production -
5.44 lakh tonnes
 Milk Production -
7.60 lakh tonnes
 10th Five Year Plan (2002-2007) -
Rs. 10750 Crore
 Per Capita Income -
Rs. 24,800 (Quick Estimate)

Himachal Pradesh has been adjudged best in the country in the field of education by the prestigious weekly 'India Today' in its annual survey "States of the States2005".                 Read more.

The stamp of Himachal
S.P. Sharma on the many colourful stamps and first-day covers on Himachal Pradesh
The tourism policy should focus on two man made lakes namely Pong and Gobind Sagar, the former has already been declared a national wet land and Ramsar site for development of adventure tourism, water sports and developing way side amusement parks and tourist villages to attract large number of tourist  ready to visit from peripheral districts of Punjab and Union Territory of Chandigarh on week ends and vacation. Read More..